The objective of this study was to assess and compare the effectiveness of a simulation-based approach among younger novice drivers and older, experienced drivers in terms of changing their attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving. Younger drivers included in this study were aged 18 to 24years, whereas older drivers in this study were aged 25 to 55 years. A driving simulator was used to test and compare the driving performance of both novice and experienced drivers while they performed single and dual tasks using a cell phone. Results showed that driving performance decreased when participants used their cell phone while driving. In particular, a secondary cellular phone task significantly reduced driving performance for both novice and experienced drivers, and there was no significant difference between novice and experienced drivers. In addition, results suggested that simulation-based feedback training was promising for short-term education in novice drivers but may be more effective in the long-term for drivers with higher levels of experience. Of interest, drivers with more experience appeared to have a greater, more sustained benefit from the training than novices. Authors recommended the creation of educational approaches that provide feedback and are more tailored toward novice drivers.
Wang, Y., Zhang, W., Reimer, B., Lavalliere, M., Lesch, M. F., Horrey, W. J., & Wu, S. (2010). The effect of feedback on attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving: a comparison between novice and experienced drivers. Traffic Injury Prevention, 11(5), 471-477.