This systematic literature review examined research about billboards as an external distraction to drivers. Results regarding the effects of billboards on glance pattern activity showed that 10-20% of all glances at passive billboards were 0.75 seconds long, whereas active billboards drew more and longer glances at 2.0 seconds long. Overall, while most drivers glanced at the billboards, this behaviour did not indicate that drivers were dangerously distracted and it did not affect their ability to drive safely. Generally, results indicated that billboard-related distractions appeared to be minor and suggested that drivers may regulate behaviour as the demands of the driving task changed.
Authors proposed future areas of research regarding the effects of billboard design, driver characteristics, and road and traffic context in addition to both the analysis of visual behaviour and the complexity of driving tasks.
Decker, J. S., Stannard, S. J., McManus, B., Wittig, S. M. O., Sisiopiku, V. P., and Stavrinos, D. (2015). The impact of billboards on driver visual behavior: A systematic literature review. Traffic Injury Prevention, 16: 234-239.